Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as an effective alternative to conventional surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in high-risk elderly patients with calcified aortic valve disease. All currently food and drug administration approved TAVR devices use tissue valves that were adapted to but not specifically designed for TAVR use. Emerging clinical evidence indicates that these valves may get damaged during crimping and deployment-leading to valvular calcification, thrombotic complications, and limited durability. This impedes the expected expansion of TAVR to lower-risk and younger patients. Viable polymeric valves have the potential to overcome such limitations. We have developed a polymeric SAVR valve, which was optimized to reduce leaflet stresses and offer a thromboresistance profile similar to that of a tissue valve. This study compares the polymeric SAVR valve's hemodynamic performance and mechanical stresses to a new version of the valve-specifically designed for TAVR. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models were utilized and the valves' hemodynamics, flexural stresses, strains, orifice area, and wall shear stresses (WSS) were compared. The TAVR valve had 42% larger opening area and 27% higher flow rate versus the SAVR valve, while WSS distribution and mechanical stress magnitudes were of the same order, demonstrating the enhanced performance of the TAVR valve prototype. The TAVR valve FSI simulation and Vivitro pulse duplicator experiments were compared in terms of the leaflets' kinematics and the effective orifice area. The numerical methodology presented can be further used as a predictive tool for valve design optimization for enhanced hemodynamics and durability.
- Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian
- Fluid-structure interaction
- Polymeric heart valves
- Surgical aortic valve replacement
- Transcatheter aortic valve replacement