The prime objective of this study was to develop a combined chemo-immunotherapeutic formulation which could directly kill cancer cells as well as activate the immunosuppressed tumor microenvironment to mount a robust antitumor immune response. Paclitaxel (PTX) and SP-LPS (nontoxic derivative of lipopolysaccharide) were selected as anticancer drug and immunostimulant respectively. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based PTX and SP-LPS containing nanoparticles (TLNP) were prepared by the double-emulsion method (w/o/w) and characterized in terms of size, zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The release behavior of PTX and SP-LPS from the TLNP exhibited a biphasic pattern characterized by an initial burst followed by slow continuous release. In vitro anticancer activity of TLNP was found to be higher compared to PTX when studied in a tumor cell-splenocyte coculture system. TLNP activated murine monocytes induced the secretion of various proinflammatory cytokines. After iv administration of TLNP in tumor bearing C57BL/6 mice, the amount of PTX in the tumor mass was found to be higher in TLNP treated mice as compared to commercial Taxol group at all time points studied. In vitro studies suggest that nanoparticles containing PTX and SP-LPS have both direct cytotoxicity and immunostimulatory activity. Hence this might have potential as a chemo-immunotherapeutic formulation against cancer with advantage over present day chemotherapy with Taxol, in terms of tumor targeting, less toxicity and immunostimulation.
- tumor targeting