Purpose: The prognosis of patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of genitourinary origin is poor. While single agent chemotherapy results mainly in partial responses of short duration, data on the efficacy of combination chemotherapy are extremely limited. We determined the response rate and toxicity of a combination of 3 of the most active agents, methotrexate, cisplatin and bleomycin, in patients with advanced genitourinary squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Patients with metastatic or locally advanced genitourinary squamous cell carcinoma were eligible for study. Treatment consisted of 200 mg./m.2 methotrexate on days 1, 15 and 22, and 20 mg./m.2 cisplatin and 10 mg./m.2 bleomycin on days 2 through 6 during a 28-day cycle. Results: Of the 30 patients who enrolled in the trial 29 were evaluable for response. Objective response was achieved in 16 patients (55%, 95% confidence interval 36 to 72), 4 of whom achieved a complete response (14%). Median objective response duration was 4.7 months (range 1.9 to 39.5). Median survival of the entire group was 11.5 months (range 1.5 to 87.0). Of the patients 9 achieved disease-free status, including 6 following consolidation surgery or radiation therapy. Median survival of these 9 patients (34.4 months, range 9.6 to 87.0) was significantly greater (p = 0.0003) than that of patients who did not become disease-free (7.0 months, range 1.5 to 38.6). Grade III or IV hematological toxicity in 116 courses included neutropenia (13%) and thrombocytopenia (6%). Among 30 patients evaluable for toxicity serious nonhematological toxic effects included stomatitis (3%) and renal toxicity (7%). There was 1 death from neutropenic sepsis. Conclusions: Methotrexate, cisplatin and bleomycin combination chemotherapy for genitourinary squamous cell carcinoma results in a high but short lived overall response rate, and a low complete response rate with manageable toxicity. A multidisciplinary approach to achieve disease-free status may provide the best opportunity to effect survival and should be the focus of future trials.
- Carcinoma, squamous cell
- Chemotherapy, adjuvant