This study assessed social functioning among three groups of Israeli soldiers: A) frontline soldiers who had been treated for combat stress reaction during the 1982 Lebanon war (N = 382); b) matched control front-line soldiers who did not sustain combat stress reaction (N = 334); and c) combat-ready soldiers who did not participate in the 1982 war (N-88). Subjects were screened 1 year after the war for posttraumatic stress disorder and social functioning. Results indicated that participation in combat per se did not have adverse effects on postwar social functioning. However, combat stress reactions and posttraumatic stress disorder were found to be associated with a decline in postwar social functioning. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings were discussed.