This study examined the effect of combat stress on somatic health in a sample of 804 Israeli soldiers. Three groups of subjects were assessed: combatants who did not participate in the Lebanon War, combatants who fought and suffered from combat stress reactions, and combatants who participated in the Lebanon War but did not sustain psychiatric injury. One year following the war subjects were asked to report somatic complaints and were screened for post-traumatic stress disorder. Results indicated that participation in combat per se did not have pathogenic effects. However, combat stress reactions and post-traumatic stress disorder were found to be associated with somatic complaints. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.