Minimally invasive exodontia is among the long-sought-for development aims of safe dental medicine. In this paper, we aim, for the first time, to examine whether the enzymatic disruption of the periodontal ligament fibers reduces the force required for tooth extraction. To this end, recombinantly expressed clostridial collagenase G variant purified from Escherichia coli was injected into the periodontal ligament of mesial and distal roots of the first and second split porcine mandibular premolars. The vehicle solution was injected into the corresponding roots on the contralateral side. Following sixteen hours, the treated mandibles were mounted on a loading machine to measure the extraction force. In addition, the effect of the enzyme on the viability of different cell types was evaluated. An average reduction of 20% in the applied force (albeit with a large variability of 50 to 370 newton) was observed for the enzymatically treated roots, reaching up to 50% reduction in some cases. Importantly, the enzyme showed only a minor and transient effect on cellular viability, without any signs of toxicity. Using an innovative model enabling the analytical measurement of extraction forces, we show, for the first time, that the enzymatic disruption of periodontal ligament fibers substantially reduces the force required for tooth extraction. This novel technique brings us closer to atraumatic exodontia, potentially reducing intra-and post-operative complications and facilitating subsequent implant placement. The development of novel enzymes with enhanced activity may further simplify the tooth extraction process and present additional clinical relevance for the broad range of implications in the oral cavity.
- minimally invasive medicine
- periodontal ligament