Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation has a high early mortality rate primarily related to transplanted stem cell dose. To decrease early mortality and enhance engraftment, a portion of selected cord blood units (20% to 50%) was expanded with cytokines and the copper chelator tetraethylenepentamine (carlecortemcel-L) and transplanted with the unmanipulated fraction after myeloablative conditioning. The primary endpoint was 100-day survival, which was compared with a contemporaneous double-unit cord blood transplantation (DUCBT) group. We enrolled 101 patients at 25 sites; the DUCBT comparison (n = 295) was selected from international registries using study eligibility criteria. Baseline carlecortemcel-L study group unit nucleated cell (NC) and CD34 + were 3.06 × 10 7 cell dose/kg and 1.64 × 10 5 cell dose/kg. Median NC and CD34 + fold expansion were 400 and 77, with a mean total CD34 infused of 9.7 × 10 5 /kg. The 100-day survival was 84.2% for the carlecortemcel-L study group versus 74.6% for the DUCBT group (odds ratio,.50; 95% CI,.26 to.95; P =.035). Survival at day 180 was similar for the 2 groups; the major cause of death after day 100 was opportunistic infections. Faster median neutrophil (21 days versus 28 days; P <.0001), and platelet (54 days versus 105 days; P =.008) engraftment was seen in the carlecortemcel-L study group; acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease rates were similar. In this multinational comparative study, transplanting expanded CD34 + stem cells from a portion of a single UCB unit, with the remaining unmanipulated fraction improved 100-day survival compared with DUCBT control patients while facilitating myeloid and platelet engraftment. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00469729.
- Ex vivo
- Umbilical cord blood