The paper investigated the links between nocturnal enuresis and self-control processes. Self-control was conceptualized as an essential cognitive element in child development in general and in bladder and sphincter control, in particular. The main objective was to compare the effectiveness of a cognitive intervention which trained children to develop and apply self-control skills with other methods for treating nocturnal enuresis. Seventy-seven enuretic children, ages 7-14, were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (cognitive, bell-and-pad, or token economy methods) and to one control group. Cognitive intervention was the most effective treatment method, as evidenced by the highest rate of success and the lowest rate of dropout or relapse. Cognitive intervention for enuresis is discussed in terms of cost-effectiveness.