Closed loop insulin delivery in diabetes

Tadej Battelino, Jasna Šuput Omladič, Moshe Phillip

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The primary goal of type 1 diabetes treatment is attaining near-normal glucose values. This currently remains out of reach for most people with type 1 diabetes despite intensified insulin treatment in the form of insulin analogues, educational interventions, continuous glucose monitoring, and sensor augmented insulin pump. The main remaining problem is risk of hypoglycaemia, which cannot be sufficiently reduced in all patient groups. Additionally, patients' burn-out often develops with years of tedious day-to-day diabetes management, rendering available diabetes-related technology less efficient. Over the past 40 years, several attempts have been made towards computer-programmed insulin delivery in the form of closed loop, with faster developments especially in the past decade. Automated insulin delivery has reduced human error in glycaemic control and considerably lessened the burden of routine self-management. In this chapter, data from randomized controlled trials with closed-loop insulin delivery that included type 1 diabetes population are summarized, and an evidence-based vision for possible routine utilization of closed loop is provided.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)315-325
Number of pages11
JournalBest Practice and Research in Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2015


  • artificial pancreas
  • closed loop insulin delivery
  • continuous glucose monitoring
  • glucose variability
  • glycaemic range
  • hypoglycaemia
  • mean blood glucose
  • sensor augmented insulin pump


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