Clinical utility of exercise, pacing, and pharmacologic stress testing for the noninvasive determination of myocardial contractility and reserve

Daniel David, Roberto M. Lang, Kenneth M. Borow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The ability of the left ventricle to modulate its performance is an important and integral component in the cardiovascular system's adaptive response to increased workload. Abnormalities in ventricular contractility can blunt this response and thus significantly limit the patient's functional capacity. The accurate determination and quantitation of cardiac contractility and reserve is a difficult task in the symmetrically contracting ventricle and more so when regional contraction abnormalities are present. Moreover, derangements in other physiologic varlables, such as ventricular loading conditions, heart rate, systemic vascular tone, cardiac autonomic function, and pulmonary gas exchange, can diminish cardiopulmonary reserve. This report relates the determinants of myocardial oxygen demand and efficiency to the currently avallable forms of exercise, pacing, and pharmacologic stress testing. Within this framework, commonly used as well as newer approaches to the noninvasive assessment of stress-induced changes in left ventricular performance and contractility are addressed. In addition, several examples are presented in which noninvasive techniques for assessing intracardiac structures, pressures, and flows (eg, echo/Doppler, radionuclide angiography, rapid acquisition computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are combined with various cardiovascular stress tests to achieve more reliable measures of myocardial contractility and reserve.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)235-247
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican Heart Journal
Volume116
Issue number1 PART 1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1988
Externally publishedYes

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