Clinical features and outcomes of bacteremic and non-bacteremic Campylobacteriosis: a case–control study

Luba Tau*, Amos Adler, Ohad Shalom, Yael Paran, Ronit Cohen Poradosu, David Shasha, Ronen Ben-Ami

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Campylobacter bloodstream infection (C-BSI) is uncommon, and its clinical significance is unclear. The aim of the study was to determine risk factors and clinical outcomes associated with Campylobacter BSI. Methods: We performed a single center retrospective case–control study comparing patients with C-BSI (cases) and patients with nonbacteremic Campylobacter enteritis (controls), from January 2007 through June 2020. Case and control patients were matched by age and sex at a ratio of 1:2. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological characteristics were compared between groups. Results: We identified 76 patients with C-BSI and matched them with 149 nonbacteremic patients with Campylobacter enteritis. Rates of C-BSI increased tenfold in 2014 following the introduction of BacTAlert FA/FN Plus blood culture bottles. Baseline variables significantly associated with C-BSI on multivariable logistic regression were fever, absence of diarrhea and recent exposure to antibiotics. Compared with controls, C-BSI was associated with higher 30-day mortality (12% vs. 2%, P = 0.003), more frequent need for intensive care (6.6% vs. 1.2%, P = 0.032) and longer hospital stay (median, 5 days vs. 3 days, P = 0.003). There was a high proportion of immunocompromised patients in both groups (55%). Conclusions: C-BSI is identified with increasing frequency, reflecting both changes in epidemiology and improved sensitivity of blood culture systems. Our findings indicate that detection of Campylobacter spp. in blood culture is associated with significantly higher rates of death and other adverse outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1225-1231
Number of pages7
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • Bloodstream infection
  • Campylobacter spp
  • Enteritis
  • Risk factors


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