Civilian adult self injections of atropine - Trimedoxime (TMB4) auto-injectors

Yedidia Bentur*, Ido Layish, Amir Krivoy, Matitiahu Berkovitch, Eran Rotman, Shmuel Bar Haim, Yoav Yehezkelli, Eran Kozer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Introduction. The clinical effects of self injections of atropine-trimedoxime auto-injectors distributed to the civilian population as a field antidote for nerve agent attack were assessed. Methods. Data on self injections by adults (≥18 years) were collected from the Israel Poison Information Center and a hospital Emergency Department's records during a 2-year period. The data included demographics, time interval from injection, type of auto-injector, clinical manifestations and atropinization score. Results. Sixty-five patients, all with unintentional self injections, were reported. Systemic atropine effects were observed in 24 patients, but no severe atropinization. The atropinization score was significantly higher in the 2 mg atropine dose group than in the two lower dose groups, which were in the normal range. No specific adverse effects attributable to trimedoxime were observed. Intravenous fluids and physostigmine were not required. Conclusion. Only mild reactions were observed following self-injection of atropine trimedoxime auto-injectors in adults, attesting to their relative safety under these conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)301-306
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Toxicology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 May 2006


  • Adults
  • Atropine
  • Auto-injector
  • Nerve agent poisoning
  • TMB4
  • Trimedoxime


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