Circadian blood pressure dysregulation in children with obstructive sleep apnea

Md Tareq Ferdous Khan, David F. Smith, Christine L. Schuler, Abigail M. Witter, Mark W. DiFrancesco, Keren Armoni Domany, Raouf S. Amin*, Md Monir Hossain

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) adversely affects normal blood pressure (BP) and may disrupt circadian BP patterns. We sought to examine 24-hour circadian BP rhythms in children with OSA and healthy controls. Methods: Children 5–14 years with OSA and healthy controls underwent 24-hour BP monitoring and actigraphy to quantify sleep. Shape invariant statistical models compared circadian BP patterns (e.g. times of BP peaks, time arrived at peak BP velocity [TAPV]) in the OSA and control groups. Results: The analytic sample included 219 children (mild OSA: n = 52; moderate-to-severe OSA (MS-OSA): n = 50; controls: n = 117). In the morning, the MS-OSA group had earlier TAPV for DBP than controls (51 minutes, p < 0.001). TAPV in the evening was earlier for the MS-OSA group than controls (SBP: 95 minutes, p < 0.001; DBP: 28 minutes, p = 0.028). At mid-day, SBP and DBP velocity nadirs were earlier for the MS-OSA group than controls (SBP: 57 minutes, p < 0.001; DBP: 38 minutes, p < 0.01). The MS-OSA group reached most BP values significantly earlier than controls; the largest differences were 118 minutes (SBP) and 43 minutes (DBP) (p < 0.001). SBP and DBP were elevated in the MS-OSA group (hours 18–21 and 7–-12, respectively, p < 0.01) compared to controls. The MS-OSA group was prone to “non-dipping” compared to controls (SBP: odds ratio [OR] = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.09, 4.29; DBP: OR = 3.45, 95% CI: 1.21, 10.23). Conclusions: Children with MS-OSA had changes in circadian BP patterns, namely earlier TAPV and BP peaks and nadirs than controls. Circadian disturbances in BP rhythms may be key to mapping the natural history of BP dysregulation in children with OSA.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberzsad254
JournalSleep
Volume47
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2024

Funding

FundersFunder number
National Institutes of HealthR01HL070907, R01HL080670

    Keywords

    • Circadian rhythms
    • ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
    • child
    • hypertension
    • obstructive sleep apnea

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