Background: The association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and increased risk of dementia is controversial. Aim: Investigating this issue in a large population of community-dwelling elders. Methods: Our database was retrospectively searched for all community-dwelling patients aged ≥65 years who newly diagnosed with dementia/cognitive decline (DCD) between January 2002 - December 2012. Receiving ≥11 prescriptions of PPIs/year was categorized as PPI users. Clinical data were collected from the medical files. Risk of DCD in PPI users was analyzed by Cox regression models. Results: Included 48,632 elders of whom 8,848 were diagnosed with DCD (18.2%). PPI use was documented in 10,507, of whom 1,959 were subsequently diagnosed with DCD (18.6%). Among 38,125 non-PPI users, 6,889 (18.1%) were diagnosed with DCD. The hazard ratio for occurrence of DCD in PPI users compared to non-users was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81–0.89, P <0.001) in an un-adjusted Cox regression model and 0.83 in a Cox regression model adjusted for age and sex (95% CI: 0.79–0.87, P <0.001). Multivariate Cox regression accounting for background diseases, marital status, and socioeconomic state yielded a hazard ratio of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.73–0.81, P <0.001). Conclusion: PPI use wasn't associated with DCD development in chronic PPI users.
- Cognitive decline