Chronic health conditions among long-term survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer: A comparison of outcomes in Israel and the United States

Samah Hayek*, Gilad Libresco, Noam Barda, Chun Chao, Lanfang Xu, Kimberly L. Cannavale, Shai Izraeli, Saro H. Armenian

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: There is a paucity of information on health outcomes of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors living outside North America and Europe. This study compared outcomes in AYA cancer survivors in Israel with individuals without cancer and similar demographics and access to health care, and to AYA cancer survivors living in the United States. Methods: This study included 12,674 2-year survivors of AYA (aged 15–39 years) cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2018 at Clalit Health Services (CHS) in Israel. CHS participants without cancer (N = 50,696) were matched 4:1 to survivors on age, sex, ethnicity, and membership duration. Poisson regression was used to determine incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for chronic conditions. The US Kaiser Permanente Southern California AYA cohort (N = 6778) was used to estimate weighted (age, sex) standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for CHS survivors. Results: CHS AYA cancer survivors were more likely to have any chronic condition (IRR, 1.6 95% CI, 1.5–1.7), compared with participants without cancer. Survivors had an increased risk across nearly all conditions examined, with especially elevated risks for osteoporosis (IRR, 4.7; 95% CI, 4.1–5.5) and cardiomyopathy (IRR, 4.2 95% CI, 3.4–5.3). Compared with the Kaiser Permanente Southern California cohort, CHS survivors had an overall lower (SIR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.65–0.72) incidence of developing any health condition, with noticeably lower incidence of hyperlipidemia (SIR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.64–0.75). Conclusion: AYA cancer survivors in Israel are at increased risk for developing chronic conditions compared with individuals without cancer, but the overall incidence was lower than in US survivors. These findings may allow for refinement of surveillance recommendations for AYA survivors, taking into consideration regional differences in sociodemographic characteristics and cancer care. Plain language summary: The burden of chronic conditions was consistently greater in Israeli adolescent and young adult cancer survivors compared with individuals without cancer, with clear differences in risk of specific conditions by cancer diagnosis. However, the overall incidence of chronic conditions in Israeli survivors was generally lower than in US survivors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1763-1776
Number of pages14
JournalCancer
Volume129
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2023

Keywords

  • adolescent and young adult
  • cancer survivors
  • chronic health conditions
  • late effects

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