Characteristics of pelvic inflammatory disease caused by sexually transmitted disease – An epidemiologic study

Yael Yagur*, Omer Weitzner, Lisa Barchilon Tiosano, Yossi Paitan, Michal Katzir, Ron Schonman, Zvi Klein, Netanella Miller

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the upper genital organs, diagnosed by clinical findings. The nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) identify sexually transmitted (STD) pathogens from endocervical swabs, via real time PCR. This study explored the prevalence of STD detected by NAAT for women with PID. We also aimed to identify predictive characteristics for positive test. Material & Methods: This retrospective cohort study explored the prevalence of positive NAAT for women with clinically diagnosed PID, 2016–2019, in a secondary referral center. The primary outcome was the prevalence of positive STD tests and specific pathogens. The secondary outcome was predictive clinical and laboratory parameters for positive NAAT. Results: Among the 610 women in our cohort, 103 had a positive STD PCR, which accounts for 17%. Most of the patients had Urea parvum (39.4%) Mycoplasma hominis (17.2%) or Urea urealyticum (15.7%). Other pathogens with lower incidence were Chlamydia trachomatis (9.8%), Trichomonas vaginalis (3.4%), Mycoplasma genitalium (2.1%) and the lowest rate was for Neisseria gonorrhea (1.5%). Conclusion: In our population, we found lower prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea compared to other large populations. This may be due to a high prevalence of married and religious women and also due to administration of a wide range of empirical antibiotic treatment, even for a low suspicion of PID. The study also gives reassurance that our empirical antibiotic protocol is adjusted to the endemic PID pathogens found in our population.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102176
JournalJournal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
Issue number9
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • Infectious diseases
  • Nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • Prevention
  • Sexually transmitted disease (STD)


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