Characterisation of a novel porcine coronary artery CTO model

Paul Fefer, Normand Robert, Beiping Qiang, Garry Liu, Nigel Munce, Kevan Anderson, Azriel B. Osherov, Michelle Ladouceur-Wodzak, Xiuling Qi, Alexander Dick, Max Weisbrod, Michelle Samuel, Jagdish Butany, Graham Wright, Bradley H. Strauss*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims: To create a large animal coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) model. Presence of microvessels within the CTO lumen facilitates guidewire crossing. The patterns and time profiles of matrix changes and microvessel formation during coronary CTO maturation are unknown. Methods and results: CTO were created in 15 swine by percutaneous deployment of a collagen plug. Matrix changes were assessed by histology. Intraluminal neovascularisation was assessed by histology and several imaging modalities, including conventional and 3D spin angiography, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), at six and 12 weeks following CTO creation. Matrix changes included an intense inflammatory reaction at six weeks which had partially abated by 12 weeks. A proteoglycan-rich matrix at six weeks was partially replaced with collagen by 12 weeks. Similar changes were noted in the proximal cap which was acellular. Three patterns of microvessel formation were identified and defined based on the presence and extent of a "lead" neovessel. No major differences in pattern or extent of neovascularisation were noted between six and 12 weeks. Conclusions: Heterogeneity in neovascularisation patterns occurs during coronary CTO development in a porcine model. Non-invasive imaging to determine the predominant type of neovascularisation prior to and during CTO revascularisation may improve guidewire crossing success rates. This model may be useful for further exploration of CTO pathophysiology, and may aid in further refinements of in vivo imaging of CTO and development of novel therapeutic approaches to revascularisation of CTO, such as manipulations of the proximal cap, matrix composition, neovessel induction, and device testing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1444-1452
Number of pages9
Issue number12
StatePublished - Apr 2012


  • Animal model
  • Chronic total occlusion
  • Coronary arteries
  • Neovessels
  • Pathology


Dive into the research topics of 'Characterisation of a novel porcine coronary artery CTO model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this