Changing trends of acute otitis media bacteriology in central Israel in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines era

Sharon Ovnat Tamir, Yehudah Roth, Ilan Dalal, Abraham Goldfarb, Itamar Grotto, Tal Marom*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The widespread use of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has changed acute otitis media (AOM) bacteriology. Only scattered data with regard to this effect of PCV13 have been published so far. Methods: We retrospectively identified children <6 years of age who presented to our hospital with AOM, and had middle ear fluid (MEF) cultures obtained during tympanocentesis or from spontaneous otorrhea during 2008-2013, when PCV7 (2009) and PCV13 (2010) were gradually introduced in the Israeli National Immunization Program. Data were extracted for demographics, clinical and microbiologic parameters, according to vaccination status. Results: Of the 295 eligible AOM episodes reported in 279 children, 224 (76%) had MEF cultures from tympanocentesis and 71 (24%) from spontaneous otorrhea. Boys and children <2 years of age contributed 178 (60%) and 219 (74%) AOM episodes, respectively. Acute mastoiditis complicated 58 (20%) of these episodes. None of the children were PCV immunized in 2008, but >90% had received ≥1 PCV dose(s) by 2011 or later. Of the 106 (36%) MEF cultures which tested positive for otopathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and multiple bacteria grew in 60 (57%), 39 (37%), 2 (2%) and 5 (5%) episodes, respectively. S. pneumonia-positive MEF culture rate in unimmunized children (31, 69%) was significantly higher than in PCV7-immunized children (22, 59%) or PCV13-immunized children (12, 50%), P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively. Conclusion: PCV7 and PCV13 implementations in the Israeli National Immunization Program were associated with a rapid reduction of "severe"pneumococcal AOM episodes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-199
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Acute otitis media
  • Middle ear fluid
  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Tympanocentesis


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