The carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua) is a common and important element of the present Israeli vegetation. The name of the carob was first mentioned in the Mishna and the Talmud. Archaeo- botanical analyses in Israel have shown that only a very small number of pieces of charred wood and seeds of Ceratonia siliqua were found out of several thousands of samples identified all over the country throughout the archaeological profile, although they are very well preserved even when charred. These findings suggest that Ceratonia siliqua was present in Israel in ancient times, but it was very rare. Its present spreading probably dates from the last few centuries, when this species invaded the denuded areas where natural vegetation had been destroyed by man.