Cephalometric findings among children with velopharyngeal dysfunction following adenoidectomy—A retrospective study

F. Kassem*, Y. Ebner, B. Nageris, N. Watted, A. DeRowe, A. Nachmani

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To characterise the craniofacial structure by cephalometry, especially the skull base and nasopharyngeal space, in children who underwent adenoidectomy and developed persistent velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD). Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Speech and swallowing clinic of a single academic hospital. Participants: Thirty-nine children with persistent VPD following adenoidectomy (mean age 8.0±3.6 years) and a control group of 80 healthy children. Main outcome measures: Cephalometric landmarks were chosen; craniofacial linear and angular dimensions were measured and analysed. Results: The linear dimensions of the nasopharyngeal area were shorter in the VPD group, S-Ba (41.6±4.2 mm, P<.05) and S-Ptm (42.4±5.1 mm, P<.05). The anterior skull base, N-S, was similar (68.1 mm±6.8). The velum length, Ptm-P was significantly shorter in the VPD group (27.8±4.3 mm, P<.001). The Ba-S-Ptm angle was significantly larger in the VPD group (63.5±5.6°, P<.001). There was no significant difference in cranial base angle (CBA), Ba-S-N, between the two groups. Conclusions: Cephalometry may provide information regarding persistent postoperative VPD. The nasopharyngeal space angle and velar length appear to be risk factors for persistent VPD after adenoidectomy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1289-1294
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Otolaryngology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2017


  • adenoidectomy
  • cephalometry
  • craniofacial morphology
  • palate
  • velopharyngeal dysfunction


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