This study compared causal perceptions of teachers and pupils regarding pupils’ success or failure on a test. Specifically, following a test in a classroom, pupils were asked to evaluate their grade as a success or failure and to attribute causality to the outcome. At the same time, the teacher was asked to fill out the same questionnaire concerning each pupil in the class. This procedure was repeated in eight classrooms. Teachers were found to attribute success to themselves, to home conditions, and to effort and interest on the part of the pupil. The teachers attributed failure to the pupil’s lack of preparation, to pupil’s low ability, and to test difficulty. Surprisingly, it was found that the causal perception of pupils was similar to that of their teachers.