Cataract grading systems: A review of past and present

Helena E. Gali, Ruti Sella, Natalie A. Afshari*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of reviewTo provide a comprehensive summary of past cataract grading systems, how they have shaped current grading systems, and the developing technologies that are being used to assess and grade cataracts.Recent findingsThis summary of cataract grading systems examines the development and limitations that existed in past grading systems and how they have shaped the grading systems of present time. The Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) system is currently used both clinically and for research purposes. Recent advancements in imaging technologies have allowed researchers to create automatic systems that can locate lens landmarks and provide cataract grading scores that correlate well with LOCS III clinical grades. Utilizing existing technologies, researchers demonstrate that fundus photography and optical coherence tomography can be used as cataract grading tools. Lastly, deep learning has proved to be a powerful tool that can provide objective and reproducible cataract grading scores.SummaryCataract grading schemes have provided ophthalmologists with a way to communicate clinical findings and to compare new developments in diagnostic technologies. As technologies advance, cataract grading can become more objective and standardized, allowing for improved patient care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13-18
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Opinion in Ophthalmology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Lens Opacities Classification System III
  • automatic systems
  • cataract grading
  • deep learning
  • optical coherence tomography


Dive into the research topics of 'Cataract grading systems: A review of past and present'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this