Cardiorenal outcomes with sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes and low kidney risk: real world evidence

Meir Schechter, Cheli Melzer-Cohen, Aliza Rozenberg, Ilan Yanuv, Gabriel Chodick, Avraham Karasik, Mikhail Kosiborod, Ofri Mosenzon*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Randomized controlled trials showed that sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) protect the heart and kidney in an array of populations with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and increased cardiorenal risk. However, the extent of these benefits also in lower kidney-risk T2D populations needs further investigation. Methods: Members of Maccabi Healthcare Systems listed in their T2D registry who initiated new glucose lowering agents (GLA), were divided into SGLT2i initiators and other GLAs (oGLAs). Groups were propensity score-matched by baseline demographic and medical characteristics. Two composite cardiovascular outcomes were defined: all-cause mortality (ACM) or hospitalization for heart failure (hHF); and ACM, myocardial infraction (MI) or stroke. The cardiorenal outcome was: ACM, new end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) or ≥ 40% reduction from baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Renal-specific outcome was new ESKD or ≥ 40% eGFR reduction. Single components of cardiovascular and kidney outcomes were also assessed. Three subgroup definitions of low baseline kidney-risk were used: eGFR > 90 ml/min/1.73 m2; urinary albumin below detectable levels; and low risk according to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) classification. Analyses were performed utilizing an unadjusted model, and a model adjusted to baseline eGFR and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Results: Between April 1, 2015 and June 30, 2018; 68,187 patients initiated new GLAs — 11,321 SGLT2i initiators and 42,077 oGLAs initiators were eligible. Propensity score-matching yielded two comparable cohorts; each included 9219 participants. Median follow-up was 1.7 years. Compared to oGLAs, SGLT2i initiators had lower incidence of ACM or hHF [HR95%CI = 0.62(0.51–0.75)]; ACM, MI or stroke [0.67(0.57–0.80)]; the cardiorenal outcome [0.65(0.56–0.76)]; and the renal-specific outcome [0.70(0.57–0.85)]. SGLT2i initiators also had lower risk for ACM, hHF and ≥ 30%, ≥ 40%, ≥ 50%, ≥ 57% eGFR reduction. No difference between groups was observed for MI or stroke. In the low baseline kidney-risk subgroups, SGLT2i initiation was generally associated with lower risk of the cardiovascular and cardiorenal outcomes, driven mainly by lower ACM incidence. Conclusions: Our findings in the general population of patients with T2D demonstrates lower risk of cardiorenal outcomes associated with initiation of SGLT2i compared with oGLAs, including specifically in patients with low baseline kidney-risk.

Original languageEnglish
Article number169
JournalCardiovascular Diabetology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2021


FundersFunder number
Eli Lilly and Company
Boehringer Ingelheim
Merck Sharp and Dohme
Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
Novo Nordisk
Vifor Pharma


    • Cardiorenal outcomes
    • Real world evidence
    • SGLT2i
    • Type 2 diabetes


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