Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors related to sex-specific outcomes for death and heart failure events in the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) trial. Background: In the MADIT-CRT trial, women seemed to achieve a better result from resynchronization therapy than men. Methods: All 1,820 patients (453 female and 1,367 male) enrolled in the MADIT-CRT trial were included in this sex-specific outcome analysis that compared the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) relative to implanted cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) on death or heart failure (whichever came first), heart failure only, and death at any time. Results: Female patients were more likely to have nonischemic cardiomyopathy and left bundle branch block and less likely to have renal dysfunction than male patients. Overall, female patients had a better result from CRT-D therapy than male patients, with a significant 69% reduction in death or heart failure (hazard ratio: 0.31, p < 0.001) and 70% reduction in heart failure alone (hazard ratio: 0.30, p < 0.001). Women had a significant 72% reduction in all-cause mortality in the total population (hazard ratio: 0.28, p = 0.02) and significant 82% and 78% reductions in mortality in those with QRS <150 ms and with left bundle branch block conduction disturbance, respectively, with sex-by-treatment interactions for mortality reduction significant at p < 0.05 in each of these 3 patient groups. These beneficial CRT-D effects among women were associated with consistently greater echocardiographic evidence of reverse cardiac remodeling in women than in men. Conclusions: Women in the MADIT-CRT trial obtained significantly greater reductions in death or heart failure (whichever came first), heart failure alone, and all-cause mortality with CRT-D therapy than men, with consistently greater echocardiographic evidence of reverse cardiac remodeling in women than in men. (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy [MADIT-CRT]; NCT00180271).
- cardiac resynchronization therapy