Cabozantinib for metastatic breast carcinoma: results of a phase II placebo-controlled randomized discontinuation study

Sara M. Tolaney*, Hovav Nechushtan, Ilan Gil Ron, Patrick Schöffski, Ahmad Awada, Chris A. Yasenchak, A. Douglas Laird, Bridget O’Keeffe, Geoffrey I. Shapiro, Eric P. Winer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Purpose: Cabozantinib (XL184), a multi-targeted oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against MET, VEGFR2, AXL, and other tyrosine kinases, was assessed in a cohort of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients in a phase II randomized discontinuation trial (RDT). Methods: Patients received 100 mg cabozantinib daily during a 12-week lead-in stage. Those with stable disease per modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.0 at 12 weeks were randomized to either continue cabozantinib or receive placebo. Primary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR) during the 12-week lead-in stage and progression-free survival (PFS) after randomization. Patients were also followed for overall survival (OS). Results: Forty-five patients with MBC and a median of three prior lines of chemotherapy for metastatic disease were enrolled. The ORR during the lead-in stage was 13.6 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 6–25.7 %), and the disease control rate at week 12 was 46.7 % (95 % CI 31.7–61.6 %). Per the initial RDT study design, patients with stable disease at week 12 were randomized to cabozantinib or placebo. Following a Study Oversight Committee recommendation, randomization was suspended. Patients in the lead-in stage continued on open-label cabozantinib. Patients in the randomization stage were subsequently unblinded. The overall median PFS for all MBC patients was 4.3 months. Median OS was 11.4 months (95 % CI 10.5–16.5 months). The most common grade 3/4 adverse events in the lead-in stage were palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (13 %) and fatigue (11 %). One death from respiratory failure was reported as drug-related during the lead-in stage. Conclusions: In heavily pretreated MBC patients, cabozantinib monotherapy demonstrated clinical activity including objective response and disease control.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)305-312
Number of pages8
JournalBreast Cancer Research and Treatment
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2016


FundersFunder number
Exelixis, Inc.


    • Cabozantinib
    • Metastatic breast cancer
    • Overall survival
    • Progression-free survival
    • Tumor response
    • Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor


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