Bounded model checking with QBF

Nachum Dershowitz*, Ziyad Hanna, Jacob Katz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


Current algorithms for bounded model checking (BMC) use SAT methods for checking satisfiability of Boolean formulas. These BMC methods suffer from a potential memory explosion problem. Methods based on the validity of Quantified Boolean Formulas (QBF) allow an exponentially more succinct representation of the checked formulas, but have not been widely used, because of the lack of an efficient decision procedure for QBF. We evaluate the usage of QBF in BMC, using general-purpose SAT and QBF solvers. We also present a special-purpose decision procedure for QBF used in BMC, and compare our technique with the methods using general-purpose SAT and QBF solvers on real-life industrial benchmarks. Our procedure performs much better for BMC than the general-purpose QBF solvers, without incurring the space overhead of prepositional SAT.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)408-414
Number of pages7
JournalLecture Notes in Computer Science
StatePublished - 2005
Event8th International Conference on Theory and Applications of Satisfiability Testing, SAT 2005 - St Andrews, United Kingdom
Duration: 19 Jun 200523 Jun 2005


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