Bounded-Input bounded-output stability tests for two-dimensional continuous-time systems

Yuval Bistritz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


This paper presents two efficient algorithms to determine whether a bivariate polynomial, possibly with complex coefficients, does not vanish in the cross product of two closed right-half planes (is "2-C stable"). A 2-C stable polynomial in the denominator of a two-dimensional analog filter has been proved (not long ago) to imply bounded-input bounded-output (BIBO) stability. The two algorithms are entirely different but both rely on a recently proposed fraction-free (FF) Routh test for complex polynomials in this transaction. The first algorithm tests the 2-C stability of a bivariate polynomial of degree (n1, n2) in order n6 of elementary operations (when n1 = n2 = n). It is a "tabular type"two-dimensional stability test that can be regarded as a "Routh table"whose scalar entries were replaced by univariate polynomials. The second 2-C stability test is obtained from the first by its telepolation. It carries out the 2-C stability test by a finite collection of FF Routh tests and requires only order n4 elementary operations. Both algorithms possess an integerpreserving property that enhances them with additional merits including numerical error-free decision on 2-C stability.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9369853
Pages (from-to)2134-2147
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2021


FundersFunder number
Israel Science Foundation1989/16


    • Bivariate polynomials
    • Integer algorithms
    • Routh test
    • Two-dimensions stability
    • Very strict Hurwitz polynomials


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