Bose-Einstein condensation in an interacting Bose liquid

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An exact expression for the single-particle reduced density matrix of a translationally invariant system of bosons is obtained, as an average of a functional of the density and current operators. An approximation scheme, based on small fluctuations in density and current, is used in its lowest order, to approximate the single-particle reduced density matrix and the condensate density by a functional of the structure factor, which is a measurable quantity. This is done for the ground state and for finite temperatures. The resulting expressions for the condensate density are discussed. For the ideal gas the result is correct below the condensation temperature. For the case of an interacting liquid, Bose-Einstein condensation exists, in the ground states for two- and three-dimensional systems, and for finite temperatures it does exist only in three dimensions. The present experimental knowledge of the structure factor enables only a crude estimate of the condensed fraction which is found to be 0.1-0.2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1858-1862
Number of pages5
JournalPhysical Review A
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1974


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