Doping methodologies using monolayers offer controlled, ex situ doping of nanowires (NWs), and 3D device architectures using molecular monolayers as dopant sources with uniform, self-limiting characteristics. Comparing doping levels and uniformity for boron-containing monolayers using different methodologies demonstrates the effects of oxide capping on doping performances following rapid thermal anneal (RTA). Strikingly, for noncovalent monolayers of phenylboronic acid (PBA), highest doping levels are obtained with minimal thermal budget without applying oxide capping. Monolayer damage and entrapment of molecular fragments in the oxide capping layer account for the lower performance caused by thermal damage to the PBA monolayer, which results in transformation of the monolayer source to a thin solid source layer. The impact of the oxide capping procedure is demonstrated by a series of experiments. Details of monolayer fragmentation processes and its impact on doping uniformity at the nanoscale are addressed for two types of surface chemistries by applying Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). These results point at the importance of molecular decomposition processes for monolayer-based doping methodologies, both during preanneal capping step and during rapid thermal processing step. These are important guidelines to be considered for future developments of appropriate surface chemistry used in monolayer doping applications.
- Kelvin probe force microscopy