Bonding and oxidation protection of Ti2AlC and Cr2AlC for a Ni-based superalloy

Maxim Sokol, Jian Yang, Hrishikesh Keshavan, Michel W. Barsoum*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


Alumina forming, oxidation and thermal shock resistant MAX phases are of a high interest for high temperature applications. Herein we report, on bonding and resulting interactions between a Ni-based superalloy, NSA, and two alumina forming MAX phases. The diffusion couples Cr2AlC/Inconel-718/Ti2AlC were assembled and heated to 1000 or 1100 °C in a vacuum hot press under loads corresponding to stresses of either 2 MPa or 20 MPa. The resulting interfaces were examined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Good bonding between Cr2AlC and NSA was achieved after hot pressing at 1000 °C and a contact pressure of only 2 MPa; in the case of Ti2AlC a higher temperature (1100 °C) and pressure (20 MPa) were needed. In both cases, a diffusion bond, in which mainly Ni and Cr out diffused from the NSA into the MAX phase and a concomittant out diffusion of Al from the latter, was realized with no evidence of interfacial damage or cracking after cooling to room temperature. The reactions paths were determined to be: Cr2AlC/Cr7C3/Cr7C3,β-NiAl/α-Cr(Mo)/NSA and Ti2AlC/Ti2AlC,Ti3NiAl2C/β-NiAl/α-Cr(Mo)/NSA. Twenty thermal cycles from room temperature to 1000 °C showed that Ti2AlC is a poor oxidation barrier for Inconel-718. However, in the case of Cr2AlC no cracks, delamination nor surface degradation was observed, suggesting that this material could be used to protect Inconel-718 from oxidation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)878-882
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the European Ceramic Society
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2019
Externally publishedYes


FundersFunder number
Euratom research and training programme 2014–2018
Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team UniversityIRT15R35, IRT1146
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme740415
H2020 Euratom
Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions
Qinglan Project of Jiangsu Province of China


    • Characterization
    • Diffusion
    • MAX phase
    • Nickel
    • Super alloy


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