Bloody Amniotic Fluid and Neonatal Outcomes

Hanoch Schreiber, Gal Cohen, Hila Shalev-Ram, Sivan Farladansky-Gershnabel, Omer Weitzner, Tal Biron-Shental, Michal Kovo, Shmuel Arnon*, Ofer Markovitch

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Information on the effect of bloody amniotic fluid during labor at term is scarce. This study assessed risk factors and adverse outcomes in labors with bloody amniotic fluid. During the six years of this study, all nulliparas in our institution, with a trial of labor, were included. Multiple pregnancies and preterm deliveries were excluded. Outcomes were compared between the bloody amniotic fluid group and the clear amniotic fluid group. Overall, 11,252 women were included. Among them, 364 (3.2%) had bloody amniotic fluid and 10,888 (96.7%) had clear amniotic fluid. Women in the bloody amniotic fluid group were characterized by shorter duration of the second stage and higher rate of cesarean section due to non-reassuring fetal heart rate. In addition, there were higher rates of low cord pH (<7.1) and NICU admissions in the bloody amniotic fluid group. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, cesarean delivery, cord blood pH < 7.1, and NICU admission were independently associated with increased odds ratio for bloody amniotic fluid. Bloody amniotic fluid at term is associated with adverse outcomes and must be considered during labor.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1208
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2023


  • adverse maternal outcomes
  • adverse neonatal outcomes
  • bloody amniotic fluid
  • placental abruption


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