Objective: The ability to predict birth trauma (BT) based on the currently recognized risk factors is limited and there is little information regarding the short-term neonatal outcome following BT. We aimed to identify risk factors for BT and to evaluate the effect of BT on short-term neonatal outcome. Methods: A retrospective, cohort, case-control study of all cases of BT in a single tertiary center (1986-2009). The control group included the two subsequent full-term singleton neonates who did not experienced BT. Short-term neonatal outcome was compared between the groups including Apgar scores, NICU admission, duration of hospitalization and neurologic, respiratory and metabolic morbidity. Results: Of the 118280 singleton full-term newborns delivered during the study period, 2874 were diagnosed with BT (24.3/1000). The most frequent types of BT were scalp injuries (63.9%, 15.5/1000) and clavicular fracture (32.1%, 7.7/1000). The following factors were found to be independent risk factors for BT: instrumental delivery (OR 7.5, 95% CI 6.3-8.9), birth weight, delivery during risk hours, parity, maternal age and neonatal head circumference. Cesarean delivery was the only factor protective of BT (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.2-0.3). Neonates in the study group had a prolonged length of hospital stay (3.3 versus 2.7d, p=0.001), were more likely to be admitted to the NICU (3.9% versus 1.9%, p<0.001), and had a higher rate of jaundice (11.9% versus 7.1%, p<0.001) and neurological morbidity (4.7% versus 2.3%, p<0.001). Conclusion: Instrumental delivery appears to be responsible for most cases of neonatal BT.
- Birth trauma
- Risk factor