Biological treatment for bullous pemphigoid

Meital Oren-Shabtai*, Daniel Mimouni, Adi Nosrati, Lihi Atzmony, Baruch Kaplan, Aviv Barzilai, Sharon Baum

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune subepidermal bullous disease. Topical or systemic corticosteroids are often used as the first-line treatment. However, long-term corticosteroid use may lead to significant side effects. Therefore, various adjuvant immunosuppressant therapies are used as steroid-sparing agents, with accumulating reports of biological treatments for severely recalcitrant BP. Objective: To describe the clinical and immunological features of a series of patients with recalcitrant BP treated with immunobiological therapies. To assess the efficacy and safety of their therapies. Methods: Patients receiving biological treatment for BP from two centers were assessed. Here, we described the clinical, immunopathological, and immunofluorescence findings of adult patients with BP and analyzed the clinical response and adverse events associated with various biological therapies. Results: We identified nine eligible patients treated with rituximab (seven), omalizumab (three), or dupilumab (one). The mean age at diagnosis was 60.4 years, the average BP duration before biologic initiation was 1.9 years, and the average previous treatment failure was 2.11 therapies. The mean follow-up period from the first biological treatment to the last visit was 29.3 months. Satisfactory response, defined as clinical improvement, was achieved in 78% (7) of the patients, and total BP clearance was achieved in 55% (5) of the patients at the last follow-up visit. Additional rituximab courses improved the disease outcomes. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions: Efficient and safe novel therapies can be considered in recalcitrant steroid-dependent BP non-responsive to conventional immunosuppressant therapies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1157250
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Volume14
DOIs
StatePublished - 2023

Keywords

  • autoimmune subepidermal bullous disease
  • bullous pemphigoid
  • corticosteroids
  • dupilumab
  • omalizumab
  • rituximab
  • steroid-sparing immunomodulatory agents

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