The 21 amino acid sarafotoxins (SRTX) c and d/e as well as endothelin-3 (ET-3) are known to be less toxic and weaker pharmacologically than the other isopeptides SRTX-a, SRTX-b and ET-1. Since SRTX-c, SRTX-d/e and ET-3 possess a Thr instead of a Ser at position 2, we investigated the possibility that this mutation could be responsible for the observed biological differences. Here we show that the synthetic [Thr2]SRTX-b has indeed a lower vasoconstriction efficacy (≈35%) in the rabbit aorta, but it is nearly as potent as SRTX-b in toxicity tests and in influencing contraction of the rat uterus. Using monoclonal antibodies directed against the structurally related endothelin-1, we also show that the antigenicity of the analogue is comparable to that of SRTX-b, suggesting that the overall structure of the two peptides is similar, despite the substitution at position 2. We suggest that the Thr2 substitution contributes to the lower activity of the 'weak' peptides in some systems; however, additional substitutions found in the 'weak' peptides of the ET/SRTX family most probably contribute to their low pharmacological activity.