Most current nanotoxicology research is focused on examining the influence of nanomaterials at the tissue and cellular levels. To explore these interactions on the molecular level, new carboxyfullerenes interact with transport proteins at the molecular level. The carboxyfullerenes exhibited an unusual mode of binding outside the calyx of β-lactoglobulin (a typical representative of lipocalin family of barrier liquid proteins). The complexes were studied by various techniques, including mass spectrometry, UV/vis and circular dichroism spectroscopy, chromatographic methods, gel electrophoresis, and dynamic light scattering. The fullerene ligands were transferred from β-lactoglobulin to human serum albumin (a representative of a blood transport protein), thus providing a model of how fullerene-based nanomaterials interact with biomolecules and are transported in biological systems.