Bio-potential noise of dry printed electrodes: physiology versus the skin-electrode impedance

Ana Arché-Núñez, Peter Krebsbach, Bara Levit, Daniel Possti, Aaron Gerston, Thorsten Knoll, Thomas Velten, Chen Bar-Haim, Shani Oz, Shira Klorfeld-Auslender, Gerardo Hernandez-Sosa, Anat Mirelman, Yael Hanein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective. To explore noise characteristics and the effect physiological activity has on the link between impedance and noise.Approach. Dry-printed electrodes are emerging as a new and exciting technology for skin electro-physiology. Such electrode arrays offer many advantages including user convenience, quick placement, and high resolution. Here we analyze extensive electro-physiological data recorded from the arm and the face to study and quantify the noise of dry electrodes, and to characterize the link between noise and impedance. In particular, we studied the effect of the physiological state of the subject (e.g. rapid eye movement sleep) on noise.Main results. We show that baseline noise values extracted from dry electrodes in the arm are in agreement with the Nyquist equation. In the face, on the other hand, the measured noise values were higher than the values predicted by the Nyquist equation. In addition, we studied how different electrode properties affect performances, including electrode size, shape, and material properties.Significance. Altogether, the results presented here provide a basis for understanding dry electrode performances and substantiate their great potential in electro-physiological investigations.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPhysiological Measurement
Issue number9
StatePublished - 26 Sep 2023


  • dry electrodes
  • electrophysiology
  • emg
  • impedance
  • noise
  • printed electronics
  • skin-electrode interface


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