Bimetal Thin Film, Semiconductors, and 2D Nanomaterials in SPR Biosensors: An Approach to Enhanced Urine Glucose Sensing

Shatrughna Kumar, Archana Yadav*, Boris A. Malomed

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


This work introduces a systematic approach for the development of Kretschmann configuration-based biosensors designed for non-invasive urine glucose detection. The methodology encompasses the utilization of various semiconductors, including Silicon (Si), Germanium (Ge), Gallium Nitride (GaN), Aluminum Nitride (AlN), and Indium Nitride (InN), in combination with a bimetallic layer (comprising Au and Ag films of equal thickness) to enhance the biosensor sensitivity. Additionally, 2D nanomaterials, such as Black Phosphorus and Graphene, are integrated into the semiconductor layers to enhance performance further. These configurations are meticulously optimized through the application of the transfer matrix method (TMM), and the sensing parameters are assessed using the angular modulation method. Among the semiconductors, AlN and GaN exhibit superior results. On these substrates, Graphene and Black phosphorous (BP) layers are applied, resulting in four final structures (thicknesses in nm): BK7/Au(26)/Ag(26)/Si(6)/BP(0.53)/Biosample, BK7/Au(26)/Ag(26)/AlN(14)/BP(0.53)/Biosample, BK7/Au(26)/Ag(26)/GaN(12)/BP(0.53)/Biosample, and BK7/Au(26)/Ag(26)/GaN(12)/Graphene(0.34)/Biosample. These biosensors achieve Sensitivity(° /RIU) and Figure of Merit (FoM) (1/RIU) of 380, 360, 440, 400, and 58.5, 90, 90.65, and 82.4, respectively. Subsequently, these high-performing sensors undergo testing with actual urine glucose samples. Among them, two biosensors, BK7/Au(26)/Ag(26)/AlN(14)/BP (0.53)/Biosample and BK7/Au(26)/Ag(26)/GaN(14)/Graphene(0.34)/Biosample, exhibit outstanding performance, with sensitivities (° /RIU) and FoM (1/RIU) of 394.44 & 294.44, and 112.6 & 92.01 respectively. A comparison is also made with relevant previously published work, revealing improved performance in glucose detection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)336-343
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2024


  • AlN
  • BP
  • GaN
  • Kretschmann configuration
  • SPR biosensors
  • graphene
  • reflectance
  • sensitivity
  • urine glucose


Dive into the research topics of 'Bimetal Thin Film, Semiconductors, and 2D Nanomaterials in SPR Biosensors: An Approach to Enhanced Urine Glucose Sensing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this