Behavioral responses of terrestrial mammals to COVID-19 lockdowns

Marlee A. Tucker*, Aafke M. Schipper, Tempe S.F. Adams, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Natarsha L. Babic, Kristin J. Barker, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Dominik M. Behr, Jerrold L. Belant, Dean E. Beyer, Niels Blaum, J. David Blount, Dirk Bockmühl, Ricardo Luiz Pires Boulhosa, Michael B. Brown, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Rok ČerneSimon Chamaillé-Jammes, Aung Nyein Chan, Michael J. Chase, Yannick Chaval, Yvette Chenaux-Ibrahim, Seth G. Cherry, Duško Ćirović, Emrah Çoban, Eric K. Cole, Laura Conlee, Alyson Courtemanch, Gabriele Cozzi, Sarah C. Davidson, Darren DeBloois, Nandintsetseg Dejid, Vickie DeNicola, Arnaud L.J. Desbiez, Iain Douglas-Hamilton, David Drake, Michael Egan, Jasper A.J. Eikelboom, William F. Fagan, Morgan J. Farmer, Julian Fennessy, Shannon P. Finnegan, Christen H. Fleming, Bonnie Fournier, Nicholas L. Fowler, Mariela G. Gantchoff, Alexandre Garnier, Benedikt Gehr, Chris Geremia, Jacob R. Goheen, Morgan L. Hauptfleisch, Mark Hebblewhite, Morten Heim, Anne G. Hertel, Marco Heurich, A. J.Mark Hewison, James Hodson, Nicholas Hoffman, J. Grant C. Hopcraft, Djuro Huber, Edmund J. Isaac, Karolina Janik, Miloš Ježek, Örjan Johansson, Neil R. Jordan, Petra Kaczensky, Douglas N. Kamaru, Matthew J. Kauffman, Todd M. Kautz, Roland Kays, Allicia P. Kelly, Jonas Kindberg, Miha Krofel, Josip Kusak, Clayton T. Lamb, Tayler N. LaSharr, Peter Leimgruber, Horst Leitner, Michael Lierz, John D.C. Linnell, Purevjav Lkhagvaja, Ryan A. Long, José Vicente López-Bao, Matthias Claudio Loretto, Pascal Marchand, Hans Martin, Lindsay A. Martinez, Roy T. McBride, Ashley A.D. McLaren, Erling Meisingset, Joerg Melzheimer, Evelyn H. Merrill, Arthur D. Middleton, Kevin L. Monteith, Seth A. Moore, Bram Van Moorter, Nicolas Morellet, Thomas Morrison, Rebekka Müller, Atle Mysterud, Michael J. Noonan, David O’Connor, Daniel Olson, Kirk A. Olson, Anna C. Ortega, Federico Ossi, Manuela Panzacchi, Robert Patchett, Brent R. Patterson, Rogerio Cunha de Paula, John Payne, Wibke Peters, Tyler R. Petroelje, Benjamin J. Pitcher, Boštjan Pokorny, Kim Poole, Hubert Potočnik, Marie Pier Poulin, Robert M. Pringle, Herbert H.T. Prins, Nathan Ranc, Slaven Reljić, Benjamin Robb, Ralf Röder, Christer M. Rolandsen, Christian Rutz, Albert R. Salemgareyev, Gustaf Samelius, Heather Sayine-Crawford, Sarah Schooler, Çağan H. Şekercioğlu, Nuria Selva, Paola Semenzato, Agnieszka Sergiel, Koustubh Sharma, Avery L. Shawler, Johannes Signer, Václav Silovský, João Paulo Silva, Richard Simon, Rachel A. Smiley, Douglas W. Smith, Erling J. Solberg, Diego Ellis-Soto, Orr Spiegel, Jared Stabach, Jenna Stacy-Dawes, Daniel R. Stahler, John Stephenson, Cheyenne Stewart, Olav Strand, Peter Sunde, Nathan J. Svoboda, Jonathan Swart, Jeffrey J. Thompson, Katrina L. Toal, Kenneth Uiseb, Meredith C. VanAcker, Marianela Velilla, Tana L. Verzuh, Bettina Wachter, Brittany L. Wagler, Jesse Whittington, Martin Wikelski, Christopher C. Wilmers, George Wittemyer, Julie K. Young, Filip Ziba, Tomasz Zwijacz-Kozica, Mark A.J. Huijbregts, Thomas Mueller

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations

Abstract

COVID-19 lockdowns in early 2020 reduced human mobility, providing an opportunity to disentangle its effects on animals from those of landscape modifications. Using GPS data, we compared movements and road avoidance of 2300 terrestrial mammals (43 species) during the lockdowns to the same period in 2019. Individual responses were variable with no change in average movements or road avoidance behavior, likely due to variable lockdown conditions. However, under strict lockdowns 10-day 95th percentile displacements increased by 73%, suggesting increased landscape permeability. Animals’ 1-hour 95th percentile displacements declined by 12% and animals were 36% closer to roads in areas of high human footprint, indicating reduced avoidance during lockdowns. Overall, lockdowns rapidly altered some spatial behaviors, highlighting variable but substantial impacts of human mobility on wildlife worldwide.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1059-1064
Number of pages6
JournalScience
Volume380
Issue number6649
DOIs
StatePublished - 9 Jun 2023

Funding

FundersFunder number
Grand Teton Association
Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute and Tanzania National Parks
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF9881
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
Safari Club International and Alberta Conservation Association
Greensboro Science Center
LANDTHIRSTANR-16-CE02-0001-01, ANR-16-IDEX-0006
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung
Missouri Department of ConservationPROJECT MO W103-R1
Missouri Department of Conservation
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Zoo Miami
American Society of Mammalogists African Graduate Student Research Fund
Wyoming Game and Fish Commission
Kodiak Brown Bear Trust
Javna Agencija za Raziskovalno Dejavnost RSP4-0059, N1-0163
Javna Agencija za Raziskovalno Dejavnost RS
National Science FoundationIOS-1656527, IOS-1656642
National Science Foundation
College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York
Wyoming Wildlife/Livestock Disease Research Partnership
Slovenia Hunters Association and Slovenia Forest Service
Eastern Shoshone and Northern Arapahoe Fish and Game Department
National Aeronautics and Space Administration80NSSC21K1182
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Narodowe Centrum Badań i RozwojuPOLNOR/198352/85/2013
Narodowe Centrum Badań i Rozwoju
Wyoming Animal Damage Management Board
Wyoming Game and Fish Department
Parks Canada
National Science Foundation2019822, IOS2015662
National Science Foundation
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung
Regional Government of AsturiasIDI/2021/000075
National Geographic SocietyNGS-82515R-20
National Geographic Society
Ecotone Telemetry company
Knobloch Family Foundation
Wolf Conservation Trust
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung
Miljødirektoratet
Fondation Segré
Old Harbor Native Corporation
Israel Science Foundation396/20
Israel Science Foundation
Fish and Wildlife Compensation Program
Fondation Segré
Saxon Ministry for Science, Culture and Tourism
Rufford Foundation29681-1
Rufford Foundation
EuroNatur Stiftung
Messerli Foundation in Switzerland
Center of Advanced Systems Understanding
Naturvårdsverket
European Commission
H2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions798091
H2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions
Radboud Excellence Initiative
Foundation for North American Wild Sheep
State University of New York
FEDER EU
Alaska Department of Fish and Game
Bowhunters of Wyoming
Deutsche ForschungsgemeinschaftHE 8857/1-1
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
Yellowstone Forever
World Wildlife Fund
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología14-INV-208
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología
Ministerstvo ZemědělstvíQK1910462
Ministerstvo Zemědělství
ANR-16-CE02-0010
Illinois Department of Natural Resources2038704 9, LTREB 1556248
Illinois Department of Natural Resources
Sigrid Rausing Trust
Zoo Dresden
Wyoming Outfitters and Guides Association
British Ecological Society
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
Ministry of Environment and Tourism Namibia
Deutsche ForschungsgemeinschaftEXC 2117 – 422037984
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
North Florida Wildlife Center
Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory
Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation
National Science FoundationIIBR 1915347
National Science Foundation
Barbara Watkins
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food and Slovenian Research AgencyCRP V1-1626
Bernd Thies-Stiftung
Lord Kelvin Adam Smith fund
Ministerstvo Školství, Mládeže a TělovýchovyCZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000803, CZ.02.2.69/0.0/0.0/19_073/0016944
Ministerstvo Školství, Mládeže a Tělovýchovy
U.S. Bureau of Land Management
Boone and Crockett Club
Wyoming Governor’s Big Game License Coalition
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
Agence Nationale de la Recherche
Department of Environment and Natural Resources
U.S. Forest Service
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, University of Tehran
Mongolian Academy of Sciences
Alberta Environment and Parks
Wyoming Wildlife and Natural Resource Trust
Horizon 2020 Framework Programme
Disney Conservation Fund
Batubay Özkan
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of CanadaAKW-12, RGPIN-2021-02758
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
Dutch Research Council NWO
Aix-Marseille Université
David Shepherd Wildlife Foundation
Wyoming Wild Sheep Foundation
National Park Service
Sächsisches Staatsministerium für Wissenschaft und Kunst
Habitat Conservation Trust Foundation
Zoo Miami Foundation
Utah Division of Wildlife Resources
Royal Zoological Society of Scotland
Agencia Estatal de Investigación
Aage V. Jensen Naturfond
MORESTEP01LC1710A, 01LC1820A
Koniag Native Corporation
Ministerio de Asuntos Económicos y Transformación Digital, Gobierno de EspañaRYC-2015-18932, CGL2017-87528-R
Ministerio de Asuntos Económicos y Transformación Digital, Gobierno de España
Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung31003A_182286, 310030_204478
Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung
Muley Fanatic Foundation
H2020 European Research Council641918
H2020 European Research Council
Ministarstvo Prosvete, Nauke i Tehnološkog Razvoja451-03-68/2022-14/200178
Ministarstvo Prosvete, Nauke i Tehnološkog Razvoja
U.S. Department of AgricultureMSN201473
U.S. Department of Agriculture

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