BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey - XII. The relation between coronal properties of active galactic nuclei and the Eddington ratio

C. Ricci*, L. C. Ho, A. C. Fabian, B. Trakhtenbrot, M. J. Koss, Y. Ueda, A. Lohfink, T. Shimizu, F. E. Bauer, R. Mushotzky, K. Schawinski, S. Paltani, I. Lamperti, E. Treister, K. Oh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

81 Scopus citations


The bulk of the X-ray emission in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is produced very close to the accreting supermassive black hole (SMBH), in a corona of hot electrons which up scatters optical and ultraviolet photons from the accretion flow. The cut-off energy (EC) of the primary X-ray continuum emission carries important information on the physical characteristics of the X-ray emitting plasma, but little is currently known about its potential relation with the properties of accreting SMBHs. Using the largest broad-band (0.3-150 keV) X-ray spectroscopic study available to date, we investigate how the corona is related to the AGN luminosity, black hole mass and Eddington ratio (λEdd). Assuming a slab corona the median values of the temperature and optical depth of the Comptonizing plasma are kTe = 105 ± 18 keV and τ = 0.25 ± 0.06, respectively. When we properly account for the large number of EC lower limits, we find a statistically significant dependence of the cut-off energy on the Eddington ratio. In particular, objects with λEdd > 0.1 have a significantly lower median cut-off energy (EC = 160 ± 41 keV) than those with λEdd ≤ 0.1 (EC = 370 ± 51 keV). This is consistent with the idea that radiatively compact coronae are also cooler, because they tend to avoid the region in the temperature-compactness parameter space where runaway pair production would dominate. We show that this behaviour could also straightforwardly explain the suggested positive correlation between the photon index (Γ) and the Eddington ratio, being able to reproduce the observed slope of the Γ-λEdd trend.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1819-1830
Number of pages12
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 2018
Externally publishedYes


FundersFunder number
China-CONICYT fund
National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNNH16CT03C
California Institute of Technology
Seventh Framework Programme340442
European Research Council
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen ForschungPP00P2 166159, PP00P2 138979, PZ00P2 154799/1
National Natural Science Foundation of China1721303, 11473002
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica2017 PAI77170080, Basal-CATA PFB–06/2007, PIA ACT172033
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico1160999, 1141218
Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo, Chile17K05384, IC120009
National Key Research and Development Program of China2016YFA0400702


    • Galaxies: Seyfert
    • Galaxies: active
    • Quasars: general
    • Quasars: supermassive black holes
    • X-rays: general


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