Baseline Findings in the Retrospective Digital Computer Analysis of Keratoconus Evolution (REDCAKE) Project

The REDCAKE Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To present the baseline data for a large cohort of patients with keratoconus enrolled in the Retrospective Digital Computer Analysis of Keratoconus Evolution (REDCAKE) study. Methods: Eight centers contributed the Scheimpflug tomographical data for 906 patients with keratoconus, 743 measured with a Pentacam and 163 with a Galilei. The stage of keratoconus at baseline, the location of the reference points, minimum pachymetry (Pmin), and maximum keratometry (Kmax) were analyzed. The intereye asymmetry was evaluated for Kmax (anterior and posterior), Pmin, and keratoconus stage. Average maps and elevation profiles were calculated for each degree of keratoconus. Results: Keratoconus was more frequently diagnosed in men (73%) than in women (27%). At baseline, 500/1155 eyes (43%) presented with moderate to severe changes in the posterior surface, whereas moderate/severe changes were only found in 252 and 63 eyes when evaluating anterior surface and pachymetry, respectively. The location of Pmin was usually inferotemporal (94% OD and 94% OS), while the location of Kmax showed more variability and significantly higher distance from apex (P < 0.05). The keratoconus presentation was chiefly asymmetric for all the parameters studied. Clear differences between stages could be identified in the maps and elevation profiles. Conclusions: The staging map set presented can be used as a graphical guidance to classify keratoconus stage. Keratoconus presented asymmetrically, and generally the posterior surface was more affected than the anterior surface or the thickness. Asymmetry is playing a role in KC detection. Although Pmin was almost invariably located inferotemporally, Kmax location showed higher variability and distance from the apex.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)156-167
Number of pages12
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2021


FundersFunder number
Flemish government Agency for Innovation by Science and TechnologyTBM-T000416N


    • corneal tomography
    • keratoconus
    • keratoconus asymmetry
    • keratoconus location
    • keratoconus progression


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