A fascinating phenomenon which characterizes semiconductors in the nanoscale regime is the ability to control the physical properties of the system through its dimensionality, as was demonstrated for a large number of systems including 2D quantum wells, 1D nanowires, and 0D quantum dots. Heterostructured nanorods, which are composed of two or more semiconductors, present an exciting example for a system in which the physical properties are strongly influenced by the 1D nature of the entire particle, but also incorporate the effects of the dimensionality, dimensions, and composition of each component on its own. The ongoing progress in colloidal synthesis of nanocrystals allows nowadays to synthesize a variety of heterostructured nanorods with different compositions and structures, ranging from seeded nanorods to rods with asymmetric spatial compositions. The unique properties of these systems, with reduced and mixed dimensionality, attract a growing interest from the scientific point of view, and are also attractive for a range of applications including solid state lighting, lasers, light emitting diodes, flat panel displays, bio-labeling, and solar cells. In this paper we review the growing family of heterostructured nanorods, analyze the factors which determine their physical properties and in particular their optical characteristics, and discuss the potential applications of these systems in different technologies.
- Electronic properties
- Optical properties