Bacteriologic and clinical efficacy of oral gatifloxacin for the treatment of recurrent/nonresponsive acute otitis media: An open label, noncomparative, double tympanocentesis study

Eugene Leibovitz, Lolita Piglansky, Simon Raiz, David Greenberg, Kamal A. Hamed, Jean Marie Ledeine, Joseph Press, Alberto Leiberman, Roger M. Echols, Phillip F. Pierce, Michael R. Jacobs, Ron Dagan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background. Gatifloxacin is an 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone with good activity against respiratory pathogens. Objectives. To document the bacteriologic and clinical efficacy of gatifloxacin in recurrent/nonresponsive acute otitis media (AOM). Methods. One hundred sixty patients 6 to 48 months of age with recurrent/nonresponsive AOM received gatifloxacin suspension (10 mg/kg once daily for 10 days). Recurrent AOM was defined as ≥3 AOM episodes during the previous 6 months or ≥4 AOM episodes during the previous 12 months. Nonresponsive AOM was defined as AOM occurring ≤14 days after completing antibiotic treatment or not improving after ≥48 h of therapy. Middle ear fluid (MEF) obtained by tympanocentesis pretreatment (Day 1) and 3 to 5 days after initiation of treatment (Days 4 to 6) was cultured. Additional MEF cultures were obtained if clinical failure or recurrence of AOM occurred. Bacteriologic failure was defined by culture-positive MEF during treatment. Patients were followed until Days 22 to 28. Susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution. Results. One hundred twenty-eight (80%) patients completed treatment, and 32 discontinued the study prematurely (adverse events, 17; lost to follow-up, 10; consent withdrawal, 3; and laboratory abnormalities, 2). From 89 patients (median age, 1 year; median number of prior AOM episodes, 4; range, 0 to 12), 121 pathogens were recovered: Haemophilus influenzae, 74 (61%); Streptococcus pneumoniae, 36 (30%); Moraxella catarrhalis, 9 (7%); and Streptococcus pyogenes, 2 (2%). The 36 S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin (MIC50 0.25 μg/ml); 26 of 36 (72%) were penicillin-nonsusceptible (15 fully resistant). All 74 H. influenzae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin (MIC≤0.03 mg/ml). Fourteen of 74 (19%) and 9 of 9 (100%) H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis isolates, respectively, produced beta-lactamase. Bacteriologic eradication was achieved for 118 of 121 (98%) pathogens: 74 of 74 H. influenzae; 34 of 36 (94%) S. pneumoniae; 9 of 9 M. catarrhalis; and 1 of 2 S. pyogenes. Clinical improvement/cure at end of treatment was seen in 103 of 114 (90%) clinically evaluable patients. Clinical recurrence of AOM after completion of therapy occurred in 31 patients. Of the 27 recurrent AOM cases in which tympanocentesis was performed, there were 16 (59%) new infections, 4 (15%) culture-negative results and only 7 (26%) true bacteriologic relapses. Adverse events were recorded in 21 of 160 (13%) patients: vomiting, 16; diarrhea, 3; maculopapular rash, 2. No articular adverse events were recorded. Conclusion. Gatifloxacin is efficacious and safe for the treatment of recurrent/nonresponsive AOM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)943-949
Number of pages7
JournalPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Volume22
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2003
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bacterial eradication
  • Gatifloxacin
  • Nonresponsive acute otitis media
  • Recurrent acute otitis media
  • Relapse
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae

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