Objectives: In 2002 there was an increase in the incidence of Bacillus species sepsis in our NICU that was almost completely resolved in 2003-2004 after the NICU was relocated. Our aims were to identify the source, the risk factors, and to characterize the clinical features of these infections. Methods: The epidemiological investigation commenced during the outbreak and thereafter. The patient's data were collected retrospectively and a case control study was used to analyze the risk factors. Results: There were eight cases of Bacillus species sepsis: five during 2002, two in 2003, and one in 2004. All infants recovered and salvaging percutaneous central venous catheter (PCVC) was successful in 4/6 of the cases. A case control study identified necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and PCVC as risk factors in univariate analysis but only NEC in multivariate analysis. No focal source of Bacillus bacteria was identified, but a high load of bacteria was found in the NICU's air before it was relocated. Conclusion: The risk factors for Bacillus species sepsis in our NICU were NEC and PCVC. The clinical course was milder than previously described, and PCVC was successfully salvaged in most cases. The increase in the incidence could be related to the construction work connected with NICU's relocation.
- Bacillus species sepsis
- Necrotizing enterocolitis
- Neonatal intensive care unit
- Percutaneous central venous catheter