Aging is associated with a decline in B-lymphopoiesis in the bone marrow and accumulation of long-lived B cells in the periphery. These changes decrease the body's ability to mount protective antibody responses. We show here that age-related changes in the B lineage are mediated by the accumulating long-lived B cells. Thus, depletion of B cells in old mice was followed by expansion of multipotent primitive progenitors and common lymphoid progenitors, a revival of B-lymphopoiesis in the bone marrow, and generation of a rejuvenated peripheral compartment that enhanced the animal's immune responsiveness to antigenic stimulation. Collectively, our results suggest that immunosenescence in the Blineage is not irreversible and that depletion of the long-lived B cells in old mice rejuvenates the B-lineage and enhances immune competence.