Autoimmunity on the Rise: COVID-19 as a Trigger of Autoimmunity

Arad Dotan, Yehuda Shoenfeld

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Stimulation of the immune system may act as a double-edged sword; while stimulation of the immune system is carousal for defense against infectious and endogenous compounds, hyper-stimulation of the immune system could lead to autoimmunity. The concept referred to as “the mosaic of autoimmunity” demonstrates the multifactorial origin and diversity of numerous factors contributing to the new onset of diverse autoimmune diseases (AIDs). These tangled factors are categorized into three primary groups: genetic predisposition, hormonal factors, and environmental factors. The varying combinations of these factors could determine which AID is more likely to erupt. Environmental factors are extremely diverse; any unrecognized element could elicit an immune response against it, including both exogenous and endogenous components. This chapter will discuss these concepts and describe how SARS-CoV-2 can function as an environmental factor contributing to autoimmunity. Additionally, we examine the contribution of genetic predisposition toward the nature of the immune response and its part in autoimmunity. Due to genetic and hormonal factors, women possess a more aggressive immune response than men, providing sustainability from various infections while increasing the likelihood of developing an AID. These concepts are necessary to understand why autoimmunity could be on the rise.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInfection and Autoimmunity
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9780323991308
ISBN (Print)9780323991315
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2024


  • Autoimmunity
  • COVID-19
  • Post-COVID syndrome
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • The mosaic of autoimmunity


Dive into the research topics of 'Autoimmunity on the Rise: COVID-19 as a Trigger of Autoimmunity'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this