Autoantibodies and Pregnancy Loss

H. J.A. Carp*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


This chapter describes the autoantibodies that may lead to pregnancy loss. At present, the relevant antibodies include antiphospholipid antibodies, antithyroid antibodies, and possibly antibodies against cytoskeletal elements of the developing embryo. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and diabetes mellitus are the two autoimmune diseases that have been associated with pregnancy loss. Some patients with SLE or the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) have autoantibodies mainly directed to phospholipids such as cardiolipin, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, or phospholipid-binding glycoproteins such as β2-glycoprotein I, annexin V, prothrombin, and protein Z. Future studies may define other autoantibodies.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAutoantibodies
Subtitle of host publicationThird Edition
PublisherElsevier B.V.
Number of pages7
ISBN (Print)9780444563781
StatePublished - Dec 2013


  • Anti-beta2-glycoprotein
  • Antibody
  • Anticardiolipin antibody
  • Antiphospholipid antibody
  • Antisperm
  • Lupus anticoagulant
  • Recurrent pregnancy loss


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