Background: Various methods of urinary bladder augmentation have been attempted in order to try and achieve adequate bladder capacity, urinary continence, control urinary tract infection and preserve the upper urinary tract; however, long-term complications have been unavoidable. Objective: To evaluate our experience with ureterocystoplasty as to whether it is the preferred method for bladder augmentation to achieve continence and preserve the upper urinary tract. Design: Retrospective study. Setting: Paediatric urology unit, Dana Children's hospital, Tel Aviv Medical Center (affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine), Tel Aviv University. Subjects: Four children; three girls, one boy, mean age 7.3, range (3-14) years. Two had neurogenic bladder due to occult spinal dysrraphism, the other two had non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder. The indications for surgery were urinary incontinence with recurrent urinary tract infections in all patients, one also had upper tract dilatation. Interventions: All underwent augmentation ureteroplasty, two required nephrectomy due to non-functioning kidney, two required clean intermittent catheterizatiom postoperatively. Main Outcome Measures: Urinary continence, bladder capacity, vesicoureteral reflux, renal function tests, urinary tract infection rate and surgical complications encountered. Results: In a mean follow-up period of 24 (6-46) months, all of the patients achieved urinary continence, two of the patients who have a normal bladder outlet are continent and void spontaneously with no residual urine. The other two patients are continent on clean intermittent catheterization. Only one episode of urinary tract infection was seen, none of the patients are currently on prophylactic antibiotics. The urinary bladder in all patients is spherical with good capacity and no vesicoureteral reflux was demonstrated. The upper urinary tracts are stable and the renal function tests are normal. Conclusion: Ureterocystoplasty is our preferred choice of bladder augmentation in patients with small, inelastic, poor compliant bladder with at least a moderately dilated ureter. Complications normally seen with enterocystoplasties are minimal.