This study examined the relations of attributions for good and bad events on the one hand and combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the other. The sample consisted of 262 Israeli soldiers who suffered a combat stress reaction episode during the 1982 Lebanon War and were followed 2 and 3 years after their participation in combat. Cross-sectional analyses revealed significant relations between attributions and PTSD at the two points of assessment. Changes in PTSD from Time 1 to Time 2 were also associated with changes in attribution. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.