Despite a decline in mortality rates in several countries, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death responsible for approximately half of all deaths on the continent. Coronary artery disease and stroke are often the result of acute complications of atherosclerosis (AS) and atherothrombosis. AS is a chronic inflammatory disease, which may have an autoimmune background. Low-density lipoprotein infiltrates and accumulates in the intima of the arterial wall leading to an inflammatory process and the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. These contain lipids but also calcified and fibrotic tissue, vascular cells, cellular debris, and both innate and adaptive immune cells recruited into the arterial wall. When the disruption of an atherosclerotic lesion occurs, thrombus may develop leading to atherothrombosis.