Studies in different populations with high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) have shown an association between serum uric acid (SUA) and CVD. However, only a few studies have demonstrated such an association in healthy populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SUA and CVD in a cohort of men and women without diabetes or CVD. A retrospective study was conducted, with a mean 4.8-year follow-up. The outcome was the occurrence of a cardiovascular event, defined as the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, acute coronary syndrome, acute myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. Mean SUA levels were 6.2 ± 1.1 mg/dl for men (n = 6,580) and 4.4 ± 1.1 mg/dl for women (n = 2,559). For women, the rate of CVD occurrence was 11.6% for the highest quartile of SUA level, compared with 5.0% to 6.5% for the lower 3 quartiles. For men, the rate of CVD occurrence was 14.0% for the highest quartile of SUA level, compared with 10.8% for the lowest quartile. The hazard ratio for CVD, adjusted for age, serum creatinine level, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, triglyceride level, plasma fasting glucose, physical activity, cardiovascular family history, use of diuretics, and current smoking, was 1.24 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.41) for women and 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.13) for men (p for interaction = 0.04). In conclusion, the strong association of SUA levels with CVD in women, compared with the much lesser degree in men, highlights the necessity of stratifying by gender in investigations of cardiovascular risk factors and supports exploration of SUA as a marker of CVD risk in healthy populations.